An overview of the structure of the federal supreme court of switzerland
Deputy federal justices[ edit ] The Federal Supreme Court numbers 19 deputy justices, who are also elected by the Federal Assembly.
A fully searchable unofficial version of the Systematic Collection of Swiss Law is also available free of charge. Accordingly, the organization of the courts and the procedure before them is primarily a matter for the cantons to regulate.
But just recently the Supreme Court decided in a major ruling that it has the power to review federal statutes in cases where otherwise basic human rights violations would occur.
The procedural law applied by the cantonal courts is thus primarily state law with various incursions of federal law and public international law while, depending on the area, substantive law can either be federal law this is the general rule in regard to private and criminal law or state law in several areas of public law.
Both chambers are having equal rights and equal status.
Judicial review in switzerland
At the moment, the federal judicial system is being reviewed, and substantial changes are expected to take place in the next years. Local Authorities All cantons are divided into municipalities or communes of which there are at present nearly 3, There are German-speaking and French-speaking cantons, one Italian-speaking canton and cantons in which German and French are spoken. The route to a new law is a complex and lengthy one. Three cantons Unterwalden, Appenzell and Basel are for historical reasons divided into two so-called half-cantons. Many only speak one language fluently and have some basic knowledge of another language and of English. Each canton has its own courts, which hear cases at first instance in their jurisdictions. Parliaments The Federal Assembly has its own website, which is a good source of information.
On the cantonal and local level, people enjoy similar and often even additional political rights. The federal justices have the status of government officials.
At the moment only one district court in Switzerland publishes its decisions on the Internet. In the proceedings on which they sit they have the same rights and obligations as the ordinary federal justices. A few cantonal supreme courts started to publish their decisions online. Political Rights Swiss people have many different political rights. After the deliberation of the drafts by the Federal Assembly, all the bills are published again in the Federal Gazette. Deputy federal justices[ edit ] The Federal Supreme Court numbers 19 deputy justices, who are also elected by the Federal Assembly. The legislative period is four years. The Secretary- General participates in meetings held by the Court Assembly, the Administrative Commission and the Conference of Presidents in an advisory capacity. It is important to note that in almost all cases a new bill is not introduced by parliamentarians, but by the Federal Council.
The Federal Administrative Court The Federal Patent Court Technical inventions, which often come at considerable expense, are afforded valuable legal protection in the form of patents. Currently court clerks serve on the Federal Supreme Court, approximately one third of whom are women.
The total number of the judges of the swiss federal tribunal
It is important to note that the Supreme Court has jurisdiction to review the constitutionality of cantonal laws. Nine of the deputy justices are women. Ansay 3rd ed. The best results are achieved when using one of the indices. Court clerks[ edit ] The court clerks are the judicial staff of the justices. Parliaments The Federal Assembly has its own website, which is a good source of information. From the day of this publication on, a delay of days starts running for the collection of 50, signatures for launching a referendum. A federal councilor cannot be removed from his post before the four-year period is up. Of the federal justices currently serving on the bench, three have Italian, 12 French and 23 German as their native language. Cantons Among the approx. The court has no discretion to refuse to hear a case. Please note that the international section of the Systematic Collection of Swiss Law is not updated very frequently.
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